Poulawack Cairn and Ringfort

Poulawack burial cairn was excavated in 1935 and found to contain the remians of 18 people, buried at different times between 3350 BC and 1400 BC. It is about 21 metres in diameter and two and a half metres high, significantly smaller than when it was surveyed by TJ Westropp 100 years ago.



200 metres east of the cairn is a ruined ringfort. The entrance of a souterrain (underground tunnel) inside the fort is still visible
The souterrain entrance outside the fort
The souterrain entrance outside the fort

Nenagh Castle

Nenagh Castle, Co Tipperary

Nenagh castle, the finest example of a cylindrical keep in the country, was built around 1200 AD by Theobald Fitzwalter, who came over with first Anglo-Norman invasion.

The upper windows and crenellations were added in the 19th century
The upper windows and crenellations were added in the 19th century
Tie stones show where the curtain wall ran from the west side of the tower
Tie stones show where the curtain wall ran from the west side of the tower
The garderobe
The Garderobe
Looking down on the ruins of the southern gatehouse and tower
Looking down on the ruins of the southern gatehouse and tower
The keep with the gatehouse in the background
The keep with the gatehouse in the background
Round-arched embrasure
Round-arched embrasure

Hag’s Head

Hag’s Head, The Cliffs of Moher

Stunning scenery, probably the most spectacular stretch of coastline in the country – but best avoided in the windy weather!

 A Napoleonic watch tower, built in 1803
A Napoleonic watch tower, built in 1803, close to the site of a 1st-century BC fort (long since disappeared)
Looking from Hag's Head across to Doolin
Looking from Hag’s Head across to Doolin


The curious rock formation from which Hag's Head gets it's name
The curious rock formation from which Hag’s Head gets it’s name
 The cliffs
The cliffs rise up to 700 feet above sea level

Killilagh Church

Killilagh Church, Doolin, Co Clare

Dating from c.1500, the roof of the church was set on fire by Cromwellian soldiers while mass was being said inside.

West Gable
The west gable, with a small square-topped bell chamber and window
Ogee-headed window in the side chapel
Ogee-headed window in the side chapel



Macnamara tomb
The empty Macnamara tomb, which served as a temporary “jail” during the War of Independence

Using a VPN on Windows

VPNs encrypt your internet traffic and disguise your online identity by tunneling the traffic through multiple computer nodes. Many users access VPNs through their home computers, so protecting those devices against VPN spying is a good idea, if you don’t understand VPNs, you can go online to find what is a VPN and how to use it.

While the underlying technology of VPNs are very complex, it’s easy to set up. The process of setting up a VPN is very similar to setting up a proxy in general, so we’re going to show you how to do it in the guide below.

This guide assumes you’re using Windows.

How to set up a VPN on Windows

Once you’ve set up your VPN on Windows, you’re ready to use it. If you’re using Windows, you can use a free VPN app like a VPN client, or you can use your own VPN software. However, using your own software and using a paid VPN is something you should only do if you can afford the monthly subscription and protection you get.

We’ll assume you’ve got a VPN client setup in case you don’t have one already.

Start off by turning your computer and all its peripherals into a temporary VPN. This will make everything connect through that tunnel and hide your location so that your internet service providers cannot see what websites you’re visiting or who your friends are.

To set this up, follow these steps:

Go to https://www.myvpn.com/install. Follow the setup instructions, and just restart your computer and all its hardware. That should do it.

You should be able to get online without a single internet provider showing you any content at all.

Now that you’ve set up your VPN, it’s time to make sure the DNS is set up properly on your Windows PC. This makes sure that when you type in a website’s address, you’ll get to the correct IP address.

Go to Start Control Panel Network and Internet Change adapter settings. You’ll want to check the “Properties” option for your wireless adapter in the right-hand pane. Make sure that the “Privacy” box is checked, and the “Enterprise Settings” box is not checked.

Double-click the setting for your wireless adapter. Click the “Add” button.

Name your new connection “My Network Adapter”. Click OK.

That’s it for the DNS setting.

To make your VPN work properly, your connection will need to be able to make and receive internet connections. You should have your VPN running before you take any offline data (like apps, games, etc.) or when you are connected to public wifi networks.

It should also be pointed out that none of this will actually encrypt your data, but it will obfuscate it and make it appear to be encrypted. We can’t say for sure how that will affect you, but if you’re concerned about what your ISP or government can and can’t do with your online activity, you might want to consider investing in a VPN and using it for all your online activity.


Unencrypted Tunneling Connections

WANs are more secure than unencrypted tunneling connections. Therefore, WAN-to-WAN connections are considered secure in some uses of SSH. However, WAN-to-WAN connections often have poor reliability and latency, and their security is not guaranteed for the lifetime of the connection. Many newer deployments run routers that also provide VPN services for the WAN connection. This type of VPN typically adds in a VPN encryption option, allowing the network administrator to assign a password to the VPN session. Some systems may allow administrators to lock out VPN users or force them to re-enter the password whenever their WAN access is enabled, but these options do not address the reliability and security concerns raised by unencrypted tunneling.

What is Wide-Area Network (WAN) Technology? | Fortinet

Reftel Security Attacks on Diameter

A classic attack against NATs used to be based on a type of network data attack called Reftel. In this type of attack, a malicious ISP would create a fraudulent WAN stream that was different from the legitimate WAN traffic sent by a host computer. The malicious upstream traffic would be discovered and turned into a legitimate network stream by a network server that is configured to route the suspicious data to the legitimate traffic instead. When the malicious upstream traffic was intercepted by a network monitor, it would get mixed up with legitimate network traffic. As a result, the attacker would see a different stream of network traffic than the monitor. However, the attacker would be able to capture the unique stream generated by the victim. As a result, the attacker could modify legitimate traffic by injecting fraudulent packets. By altering traffic from the victim to that of the attacker, the attacker could degrade the victim’s service.

This type of attack was known as REF. Because DNS DNS responses are encrypted, the attacker would not be able to identify whether the victim had already changed their DNS servers. DNS responses can be easily seen, even by a large number of people, because of DNS cache poisoning attacks.

There are two basic types of REF attacks: Source-Only and Target-Only. A Source-Only REF attacks a victim by sending spoofed IP packets to their DNS servers. The victim responds to the spoofed IP packet with a spoofed response, thus corrupting the victim’s DNS caching information. The Target-Only REF attacks a victim by sending spoofed DNS responses that are received by a victim’s DNS servers. The spoofed responses have the same content as the legitimate responses sent by the victim, and are therefore received by the victim’s DNS servers as valid responses. The victim’s DNS response data is then corrupted, thereby causing the victim’s service to degrade.

Because the NATs used for the various Internet Protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) are designed to block spoofed DNS responses from actually reaching the victim’s DNS servers, they are much more resistant to Reftel attacks. Therefore, NATs used for port forwarding and web filtering will usually take this attack into account.